Сопоставление инфинитива

Сопоставление инфинитива в функции обстоятельства цели с инфинитивом в функции подлежащего

Чтобы отличить инфинитив в функции подлежащего от инфинитива в функции обстоятельства цели, необходимо, в первую очередь, найти сказуемое предложения. Если перед ним имеется существительное или местоимение в функции подлежащего, следовательно инфинитив, с которого начинается предложение, выступает в функции обстоятельства и переводится обстоятельственным предложением цели с союзом для того, чтобы (чтобы). Если такое существительное или местоимение отсутствует, то сам инфинитив выполняет функцию подлежащего и переводится неопределенной формой глагола или существительным.


To know a foreign language is necessary for a modern specialist. - Знать (знание) иностранного языка необходимо для современного специалиста.

To know a foreign language well one must read books in the original. - Чтобы (для того, чтобы) знать иностранный язык хорошо, нужно читать литературу в оригинале.


Упражнение 8. Переведите следующие предложения с инфинитивом в функции подлежащего и обстоятельства цели.
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  1. To solve this problem is extremely important.
  2. To solve this problem you have to make a great many experiments.
  3. To drive a car in a big city is very difficult.
  4. To drive a car in a big city one must be an experienced driver.
  5. To calculate the age of our planet requires much knowledge in diffеrent branches of science.
  6. To calculate the age of our planet one must have much knowledge in different branches of science.
  7. To get the new magazine I had to go to the library.
  8. To run modern machines workers must be educated.
  9. To avoid the accident the cars had to move slowly.
  10. To get to the earth the rays of the sun have to travel during 8 minutes.
  11. To find the mass of the electron numerous experiments had to be made.
  12. To convert chemical energy into electrical energy we must use an electrical cell.
  13. To prevent corrosion metal must be covered with paint.

Упражнение 9. В следующих предложениях определите функцию инфинитива и переведите их.
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  1. I’m happy not to have failed you.
  2. We were sorry to find out that most of the museums were closed that day.
  3. This is a man to be relied upon.
  4. I’d like to make an appointment.
  5. This is an interesting fact to be mentioned in the report.
  6. The boy didn’t want to be praised in the presence of other pupils.
  7. I felt that to send a letter to him would only pain him uselessly.
  8. One of our friends was suddenly taken ill and had to be operated on immediately.
  9. The President is to visit Vienna next year.
  10. The press conference is to start in a minute.
  11. You should consult the doctor.
  12. The! freezer must be kept at –20º.
  13. You would rather go to class tomorrow than today.
  14. To give advice is easier than to follow it.
  15. To prove it will be very difficult.
  16. To render such a long text in English will take a long time.
  17. There is nothing to be afraid of.
  18. His name is difficult to pronounce.
  19. Walter was the first to offer her help.
  20. The terms to be insisted on are as follows.
  21. The lecture to be attended by the delegation will take place in the main hall.
  22. To understand the phenomenon the laws of motion should be considered.
  23. This method is not accurate enough to give reliable results.
  24. He was clever enough not to get offended.
  25. To take an example, let us go back to the chapter which has been described earlier.

Упражнение 10. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на функции инфинитива.
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  1. Molecules are too small to be seen even with the most powerful microscope.
  2. It is such a small deviation as to be easily neglected.
  3. To find the mass of electron was then of prime importance.
  4. One way of obtaining hydrogen is to pass electric current through water.
  5. The surface tention of water is strong enough to let a steel needle float on water.
  6. Unfortunately the thermal conductivity is very hard to determine.
  7. We observed the evaporation of water, a phenomenon to be more fully described later.
  8. X–ray analysis is to be applied to the study of this material.
  9. To go back to the analogy of the solar system, the electrons revolve around the nucleus like planets around the sun.
  10. Dalton was the first to deduce scientifically an atomic theory from experimental data.
  11. The concentration of the reactants is altered in such a manner as to reduce the velocity of the reaction.
  12. The problem has been to solidify the substance under investigation.
  13. The amount of polonium to be obtained from an uranium mineral can be simply calculated.
  14. To sum up, there are two features of atomic structure which we must bear in mind.
  15. Some problems of science could not have been solved without isotopes.
  16. The type of catalyst to be used affects the design and operation of regeneration equipment.
  17. It has been convenient to introduce a special unit for measuring amounts of radioactive material.
  18. Electrons can be made to travel at very high speeds.
  19. To shorten the experiment, it is suggested that only logarithmic plots for each point be made and the approximate space potentials be determined.
  20. Let me now explain the way in which a wave is to be imagined.